Bonded Block Model undergoing Damage and Bulking during Simulated Relaxation

Continuum numerical modeling is inherently limited when the rock behavior involves mechanisms such as spalling and bulking. The Bonded Block Model (BBM) approach simulates the initiation of cracks that can coalesce and/or propagate leading to extension and shear fracturing, as well as the rock (e.g., intact, jointed, or veined) strength dependency on confinement.

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